Chemistry Questions  Cover topics emphasized in most high school courses. Because of course differences, most students will find that there are some questions on topics with which they are not familiar. You may not be able to complete all the questions in the time given, but it’s not necessary to get every question correct to get a high score or even the highest score on the test. Skills Covered in the Context of Chemistry  Recalling knowledge: remembering fundamental concepts and specific information; demonstrating familiarity with terminology (about 20% of test)  Applying knowledge of a single principle to unfamiliar and/or practical situations to obtain a qualitative result or solve a quantitative problem (about 45% of test)  Synthesizing knowledge: inferring and deducing from qualitative and/or quantitative data; integrating two or more relationships to draw conclusions or solve problems (about 35% of test) Important Things to Note on This Subject Test  A periodic table indicating the atomic numbers and masses of elements is provided for all test administrations.  Problem solving requires simple numerical calculations.  The metric system of units is used.  Calculator use is not permitted. Recommended Preparation  One-year introductory chemistry course at the college preparatory level  Laboratory experience—a significant factor in developing reasoning and problem-solving skills— even though this multiple-choice test can only test lab skills in a limited way, as in data analysis  Mathematics preparation that enables handling simple algebraic relationships and applying these to solving word problems  Familiarity with the concepts of ratios, direct and inverse proportions, exponents, and scientific notation. FORMAT/CONTENT : Approximate % of Test 85 multiple-choice questions  Topics Covered: Structure of Matter 25%  Atomic Structure, including experimental evidence of atomic structure, quantum numbers and energy levels (orbitals), electron configurations, periodic trends Molecular Structure, including Lewis structures, three-dimensional molecular shapes, polarity Bonding, including ionic, covalent and metallic bonds; relationships of bonding to properties and structures; intermolecular forces such as hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole forces, dispersion (London) forces. States of Matter 16%  Gases, including the kinetic molecular theory, gas law relationships, molar volumes, density, stoichiometry Liquids and Solids, including intermolecular forces in liquids and solids, types of solids, phase changes, and phase diagrams Solutions, including molarity and percent by mass concentrations, solution preparation and stoichiometry, factors affecting solubility of solids, liquids and gases, qualitative aspects of colligative properties  -Reaction Types 14%  Acids and Bases, including Brønsted-Lowry theory, strong and weak acids and bases, pH, titrations, indicators Oxidation-Reduction, including recognition of oxidation-reduction reactions, combustion, oxidation numbers, use of reduction potentials Precipitation, including basic solubility rules. -Stoichiometry 14%  Mole Concept, including molar mass, Avogadro’s number, empirical and molecular formulas Chemical Equations, including the balancing of equations, stoichiometric calculations, percent yield, and limiting reactants. -Equilibrium and Reaction Rates 5%  Equilibrium Systems, including factors affecting position of equilibrium (Le Châtelier’s principle) in gaseous and aqueous systems, equilibrium constants, and equilibrium expressions Rates of Reactions, including factors affecting reaction rates, potential energy diagrams, activation energies -Thermochemistry 6%  Including conservation of energy, calorimetry and specific heats, enthalpy (heat) changes associated with phase changes and chemical reactions, heating and cooling curves, entropy  -Descriptive Chemistry 12%  Including common elements, nomenclature of ions and compounds, periodic trends in chemical and physical properties of the elements, reactivity of elements and prediction of products of chemical reactions, examples of simple organic compounds and compounds of environmental concern  -Laboratory 8%  Including knowledge of laboratory equipment, measurements, procedures, observations, safety, calculations, data analysis, interpretation of graphical data, drawing conclusions from observations and data.